MBTiles is a storage and exchange format which arranges raster and vector tiles in a SQLite file.
Specs. and references:
MBTiles can be generated by:
- TileMill and MBUtil
- TileStache - see below
- TileCutter  - Generates MBTiles from ArcGIS Dynamic Map Services.
- MapCache - (part of UMN MapServer) http://mapserver.org/mapcache/caches.html
MBTiles can be converted by:
- GDAL - Converter to read MBTiles.
- MBUtil - see below.
MBTiles can be read from and/or is delivered by:
- mbtilesviewer - http://viswaug.wordpress.com/2011/06/28/mbtilesviewer/
- ArcGIS Dynamic Map Services. See TileCutter.
- MapBox Online . Publishes maps in the cloud. MapBox Hosting uses TileStream but adds many features and is a hosted service.
- TileServer-PHP  (PHP). Deliveres pre-rendered map tiles in OGC WMTS standard made with MapTiler, GDAL, or available as MBTiles files.
- TileStache  (Python). Is aka successor of TileCache, based on Mapnik; reads MBTiles (metatiles) format. Generates vector tiles from OGR datasources in GeoJSON (usable in Polymaps). Writes (caches) to disk, Memcache, Amazon S3, MBTiles. Serves tiles in Google-style spherical mercator projection and WGS84 lat/lon projection. Runs from CGI, mod_python, or Gunicorn WSGI.
- GDAL . GDAL2Tiles utility. Is used in turn e.g. by QGIS and UMN MapServer.
- MBUtil  (Python) by klokantech. Exports MBTiles to disk (as plain raster files) and imports/packages from disk to MBTiles format.
- python-mbtiles  (Python) by PerryGeo.
One can also use MBTiles files offline on mobile devices with the MapBox iOS SDK or on Android (OsmDroid).