PostGIS - Tipps und Tricks

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Inhaltsverzeichnis

Tutorial zum Erstellen einer PostGIS-Datenbank

Quelle: BostonGIS.

Erläuterungen: "shell>" ist der Prompt einer DOS- oder Linux-Shell. "gisdb=#" ist der Prompt von psql, eingeloggt als gisdb-User.

PostGIS-Versionen kontrollieren
  • PostgreSQL-Version: SELECT version();
  • PostGIS-Version:
 SELECT postgis_full_version(); -- (bei aktiver Datenbank)
  • sonst template kontrollieren?
PostGIS-Datenbank erzeugen (Name gisdb)
  • Zur Vorbereitung: User 'gisdb' erzeugen:
 shell> createuser -a -D gisdb
   oder
 shell> createuser -s -D -U postgres gisdb
  • Datenbank 'gisdb' mit Template 'template_postgis' und User 'gisdb' erzeugen:
 shell> createdb -O gisdb -T template_postgis -U postgres gisdb description
  • Session und Grants festlegen:
 shell> psql -U postgres template1
 template1=# \c gisdb
 You are now connected to database "gisdb".
 gisdb=# GRANT ALL ON TABLE geometry_columns TO postgres,public;
 GRANT
 gisdb=# GRANT ALL ON TABLE spatial_ref_sys TO postgres,public;
 GRANT
  • DB-Projektion (default SRID=-1) vormerken:
 gisdb=# select srid, srtext, proj4text from spatial_ref_sys where srtext ILIKE '%Massachusetts%';
Download vornehmen
  • Downloaden: Towns.exe (ehem. ftp: //data.massgis.state.ma.us/pub/shape/state/towns.exe (Link nicht mehr verfügbar))
  • Auspacken und überprüfen:
 shell> unzip towns.exe
 shell> ogrinfo -so -al towns_poly.shp
Shapefile in PostGIS laden

Shapefile nach SQL konvertieren: (-S erzeugt 'single' Polygone (was shapefiles sind) und keine Multipolygone):

 shell> shp2pgsql -s 26986 -S TOWNS_POLY towns >towns_poly.sql
  oder 
 shell> shp2pgsql -s 4326 -W latin1 Kantone_WGS84 kantone >kantone.sql
SQL-Daten in PostGIS laden
('2>towns_psql_error.txt' leitet Error-Meldungen in eine Datei um):
 shell> psql -d gisdb -h localhost -U gisdb -f towns_poly.sql >towns_psql_log.txt 2>towns_psql_error.txt
  oder
 shell> psql -U postgres -d gisdb2 -f kantone.sql

Beim Import können u.a. Topologie-Fehler zum Vorschein kommen ("Error: geometry contains non-closed rings"). Solche Geometrien werden nicht importiert.

PostGIS-Index erzeugen und Installation überprüfen

PostGIS-Index erzeugen:

 shell> psql -U gisdb
 gisdb=# CREATE INDEX idx_towns_the_geom ON towns USING gist(the_geom);
 gisdb=# CREATE INDEX idx_towns_town ON towns USING btree(town);

PostGIS-DB-Installation überprüfen:

 gisdb=# SELECT st_extent(the_geom) FROM towns WHERE town = 'BOSTON';
 gisdb=# SELECT st_area(st_geomunion(the_geom)) FROM towns WHERE town = 'BOSTON';
 gisdb=# SELECT town,astext(st_transform(the_geom,4326)) FROM towns WHERE town = 'BOSTON'; 
 gisdb=# SELECT count(town) FROM towns WHERE town = 'BOSTON';
 gisdb=# SELECT st_askml(st_geomunion(st_transform(the_geom,4326))) AS the_geom FROM towns WHERE town = 'BOSTON';
PostGIS-DB/-Tabelle löschen
  • PostGIS-DB:
 shell> dropdb gisdb
  • Tabelle löschen inkl. aller Einträge in den "Systemtabellen":
 abhängigkeiten in den 'Ref-System'-Tabellen?

Shapefiles in PostGIS importieren (shp2pgsql)

Man beachte beim Import von Shapefiles das .prj File. Ohne weitere Angaben wird der SRID auf -1 gesetzt. Siehe SRID (Quelle).

Shapefile-Daten in Datenbank geo1 laden:

 % shp2pgsql -s 21781 -I -W ISO-8859-1 gemeinden public.gemeinden > gemeinden.sql
 % psql -d geo1 -U geo1 -f gemeinden.sql

Eine Alternative zu shp2pgsql ist ogr2ogr von OGR.

PostGIS-Daten laden

  • Mittels (mit PostGIS ausgeliefertem) Kommandozeilen-Tool 'shp2pgsql'.
  • Mittels INSERT und WKT oder Konstruktoren (vgl. Snippet "Creating Geometry (...) Types" unten).

Creating Geometry and Geography Types

Allowed and non-functioning constructors for creating geometry type POINT (lon lat, +/-180 +/-90):

 /*0*/ SELECT ST_AsEWKT(ST_GeomFromText('POINT(-71.06 42.28)'))           -- Preferred simplest text form without SRID
 /*1*/ SELECT ST_AsEWKT(ST_GeomFromText('POINT(-71.06 42.28)', 4326))     -- Preferred for text form with SRID
 /*2*/ SELECT ST_AsEWKT(ST_GeomFromText('SRID=4326;POINT(-71.06 42.28)')) -- Note: srid 'inline'
 /*3*/ SELECT ST_AsEWKT(ST_GeomFromEWKT('SRID=4326;POINT(-71.06 42.28)')) -- Alternative to ST_GeomFromText()
 /*4*/ SELECT ST_AsEWKT('SRID=4326;POINT(-71.06 42.28)'::geometry)        -- With cast; prefer *1*/ST_GeomFromText
 /*5*/ SELECT ST_AsEWKT(ST_SetSRID('POINT(-71.06 42.28)'::geometry,4326)) -- With cast; prefer *1*/ST_GeomFromText
 /*6*/ SELECT ST_AsEWKT(ST_MakePoint(-71.06, 42.28, 4326))                -- Preferred symbolic form (Hint: returns WKT, not EWKT)
 /*6*/ SELECT ST_AsEWKT(ST_SetSRID(ST_MakePoint(-71.06, 42.28),4326))     -- Preferred symbolic form with EWKT

Allowed and non-functioning constructors for creating geography types (Varianten für geography types):

 /*1*/  -- SELECT ST_AsEWKT(ST_GeogFromText('POINT(-71.06 42.28)', 4326))       -- ERROR: unknown ST_GeogFromText()
 /*2a*/ -- SELECT ST_AsEWKT(ST_GeogFromText('SRID=4326;POINT(-71.06 42.28)'))   -- ERROR: no ST_AsEWKT: why not?
 /*2b*/ SELECT ST_AsText(ST_GeogFromText('SRID=4326;POINT(-71.06 42.28)'))      -- Preferred with srid 'inline'; (Hint: ST_AsEWKT doesn't work)
 /*3*/  -- SELECT ST_AsText(ST_GeogFromEWKT('SRID=4326;POINT(-71.06 42.28)'))   -- ERROR: no ST_GeogFromEWKT()
 /*4*/  SELECT ST_AsText('SRID=4326;POINT(-71.06 42.28)'::geography)            -- With cast; prefer *1*; (Hint: ST_AsEWKT doesn't work)
 /*5*/  --- SELECT ST_AsText(ST_SetSRID('POINT(-71.06 42.28)'::geography,4326)) -- ERROR: ok SetSRID w. geography unnecessary
 /*6*/  -- Equivalent to ST_MakePoint() for geography types missing.            -- .

Create Polygon given Bounding Box (BBox) Coordinates

Try this in http://labs.geometa.info/postgisterminal :

 SELECT ST_AsText(ST_Transform(ST_MakeEnvelope(8.795611, 46.872886, 9.674135, 47.675419, 4326), 3857)) AS geom, '#' AS label
 SELECT ST_AsText(ST_Transform(ST_SetSRID(ST_Envelope('LINESTRING(8.795611 46.872886, 9.674135 47.675419)'::geometry),4326), 3857)) AS geom, '#' AS label
 SELECT ST_AsText(ST_Transform(ST_SetSRID('BOX(8.795611 46.872886, 9.674135 47.675419)'::box2d, 4326), 3857)) AS geom, '#' AS label
 SELECT ST_AsText(ST_Transform(ST_SetSRID('BOX3D(8.795611 46.872886, 9.674135 47.675419)'::box3d, 4326), 3857)) AS geom, '#' AS label

PostGIS-Daten darstellen

Übersicht

Export a PostGIS table to KML

PostGIS kennt die Funktion ST_AsKML(), die eine Geometrie KML-konform ausgibt. Allerdings werden nur diejenigen KML-Elemente der Geometrie selbst ausgegeben. Kopf- und Fusszeile des KML-Dokuments muss man selber hinzufügen. Dazu erzeugen wir nun eine Funktion askmldoc, die ein gültiges KML-Dokument ausgibt:

 CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION askmldoc(name text, description text, the_geom geometry) RETURNS text AS $$
 DECLARE
   result text;
 BEGIN
   result := '<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>' || E'\n' ||
                   '<kml xmlns="http://www.opengis.net/kml/2.2">' || E'\n' ||
                   '<Document>' || E'\n' ||
                   '<name>' || name || '</name>' || E'\n' ||
                   '<description>' || description || '</description>' || E'\n\n' ||
                   '<Style id="defaultStyle">' || E'\n' ||
                   '  <LineStyle>' || E'\n' ||
                   '    <color>ff00ff00</color>' || E'\n' ||
                   '    <width>1</width>' || E'\n' ||
                   '  </LineStyle>' || E'\n' ||
                   '  <PolyStyle>' || E'\n' ||
                   '    <color>5f00ff00</color>' || E'\n' ||
                   '  </PolyStyle>' || E'\n' ||
                   '</Style>' || E'\n\n' ||
                   '<Placemark>' || E'\n' ||
                   '<styleUrl>#defaultStyle</styleUrl>' || E'\n';
         result := result || ST_AsKML(the_geom) || E'\n';
         result := result || 
                   '</Placemark>' || E'\n\n' ||
                   '</Document>' || E'\n' ||
                   '</kml>';
 RETURN result;
 END;
 $$ LANGUAGE plpgsql;

Exportieren Sie damit die Geodaten in der Tabelle, z.B. mit folgendem Befehl auf der System-Kommandozeile (cmd):

% psql -A -t -d gisdb -c "SELECT askmldoc('MyTable', 'A Comment...', the_geom) FROM mytable WHERE gid=1;" -o mykmlfile.kml

Export a PostGIS table to GeoJSON

Sources:

Query:

 :: File togeojson.sql ::
 SELECT row_to_json(fc)
 FROM ( 
   SELECT 'FeatureCollection' AS type, array_to_json(array_agg(f)) AS features
   FROM ( 
     SELECT 
       'Feature' AS type,
       ST_AsGeoJSON(ST_Transform(t.the_geom,4326))::json AS geometry,
       row_to_json((SELECT p FROM (
         SELECT -- Modify followinf cols from table t if needed:
           t.ogc_fid, 
           t.gwr_egid
         ) AS p)) AS properties
     FROM av_user.gebaeude AS t -- <- Set your table here
     WHERE t.gwr_egid is not null -- <- Set some constraint if needed
     ORDER BY 1
   ) AS f
 ) AS fc;

Call it e.g. using psql like this:

 % psql -U <username> -d <dbname> -f togeojson.sql -t -o togeojson.txt 

Ev. beautify output using geojson.io or http://geojsonlint.com/

PostGIS und Google Earth

PostGIS über http-Tool mit Google Earth verknüpfen:

Von PostGIS direkt nach Google Earth:

  • Man starte psql (Beispiel mit Box um Victoria, BC, Kanada):
 -- Set output to unaligned
 \a
 -- Show only tuples
 \t
 -- Dump query to a file
 \o my_kml_file.kml
 -- Run your query
 SELECT askml('my_line', 'description', 'SRID=3005;LINESTRING( 1190000
 390000, 1200000 390000, 1200000 380000, 1190000 380000, 1190000 390000
 )'::geometry);
 -- Flush output your file and close the output stream
 \o
  • Dann Doppelklick auf die KML-Datei und Google Earth startet!
  • Hinweis: Das KML muss ev. mit KML-Kopf und -Fuss ergänzt werden.
  • Beispiel für einen Ausschnitt der Schweiz:
 SELECT AsKML('the_geom', 
              'SRID=21781;LINESTRING(480000 300000, 835000 300000, 835000 70000, 480000 70000, 480000 300000)'::geometry
        );
  • Beispiel für gisdb:
 SELECT ST_AsKML(geomunion(transform(the_geom,4326))) as the_geom from towns where town='BOSTON';

Spatial Relationships and ST_Relate

ST_Relate is based on Dimensionally Extended Nine-Intersection Model (DE-9IM) (or Clementini-Matrix). It covers all known spatial relationships. The most typical spatial relationsships (and it's opposites) got own functions, like:

  • ST_Within != ST_Contains (oder ST_Covers (*))
  • ST_Covers != ST_CoveredBy
  • ST_Intersects != ST_Disjoint

(*) Note: Prefer ST_Covers over ST_Contains if lines on boundaries count as „inside“ (Source: Martin Davis‘ blog post: http://lin-ear-th-inking.blogspot.ch/2007/06/subtleties-of-ogc-covers-spatial.html )


Documentation

ST_Relate(geom_a, geom_b, '<<pattern>>')

Examples of pattern values:

  • ST_Equals:
    • 0******** (for Point/Point)
    • T*F**FFF* (for any geom?; from Esri Webhelp)
  • ST_Contains:
    • T*****FF* (for any geom?; from Esri Webhelp)
  • ST_Crosses:
    • T*T****** (for Point/Line, Point/Area, and Line/Area situations)
    • T*****T** (for Line/Point, Area/Point, and Area/Line situations)
    • 0******** (for Line/Line situations)
    • 0F1FF0102 (for strict Line/Line situation like an 'X')
  • ST_Touches (From [5]:"The allowable DE-9IM Intersection Matrices for the two geometries are:" ???):
    • FT*******  ?
    • F**T*****  ?
    • F***T****  ?
  • ST_Contains(polygon_a, polygon_b) => ST_Relate(polygon_a.geom, table_b.geom, '2********')
  • ST_Intersects => 'T********' (or within polygon/polygon: 'T*F**F***' ?)
  • ST_Overlaps
    • '1********' (for Area/Area)
  • ST_Within
    • T*F**F*** (for any geom?; from Esri Webhelp)
  • disjoint line/point => 'FF*FF****'
  • Census blocks and voting district interiors that do not intersect "F" (interior/interior) but have a common linear "1" boundary (boundary/boundary) => (polygonA, polygonB) => 'F***1****'
  • What about this topology rule: geometries that neither intersect nor overlap. The only allowed shared points between geometries are boundary-boundary intersections. boundary-interior-boundary (touch interior) intersections are not allowed. (From: Rule.java, Jaspa project [6]

ST_Relate(geom_a, geom_b)

Haben Sie gewusst, dass es auch eine Variante ST_Relate(geomA, geomB) gibt, die die DE-9IM „berechnet“ gegeben einen Geometrie-Input? Hier z.B. zwei sich schneidende Linien (als X) als Input:

 SELECT ST_Relate(PA,PB)
 FROM (
   SELECT ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(1 3, 9 6)') AS PA, 
          ST_GeomFromText('LINESTRING(3 6, 7 3)') AS PB
   ) AS foo
 => 0F1FF0102

PostGIS und Rasterdaten

Ab PostGIS Version 2.0 (geplant 1. Quartal 2011) gibt es neu einen Raster-Datentyp.

Siehe PostGIS Raster.

PostGIS und Koordinatenreferenzsystem-Angaben

Der SRID (projection identifier) wird an drei Orten verwaltet:

  • In der geometry column: select SRID(the_geom) from mytable limit 5;
  • As a constraint on the table for the geometry column: \d mytable
  • In the geometry_columns system table: select * from geometry_columns;

Mit der Methode UpdateGeometrySRID([<schema_name>], <table_name>, <column_name>, <srid>) kann man die Kolonne aktualisieren.

Das wohl bekannteste Koordinatenreferensystem ist wohl WGS 84 (long/lat), das von GPS und KML geprägt ist und den Identifier 'EPSG:4326' hat.

Liste von SRID/SRS/CRS: http://www.spatialreference.org/

Beim Aufruf von GDAL/OGR wird die GDAL_DATA environment Variable benötigt.

Erkennen und Eliminieren von Sliver Polygonen und Spikes

Implementiert als sog. 'Stored Procedures'.

Siehe auch PostGIS-Beispiele.

Eliminate sliver polygons

Sources:


Given a polygon table that has many small areas and holes. How to remove "small" areas and holes (smaller than a given area in m2)?

Remarks:

 CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION Filter_Rings(geometry,float)
 RETURNS geometry AS
 $$
 SELECT ST_MakePolygon(c.outer_ring, d.inner_rings) as final_geom
  FROM (/* Get outer ring of polygon */
        SELECT ST_ExteriorRing(b.the_geom) as outer_ring
          FROM (SELECT (ST_DumpRings($1)).geom As the_geom, path(ST_DumpRings($1)) as path) b
          WHERE b.path[1] = 0 /* ie the outer ring */
        ) c,
       (/* Get all inner rings > a particular area */
        SELECT ST_Accum(ST_ExteriorRing(b.the_geom)) as inner_rings
          FROM (SELECT (ST_DumpRings($1)).geom As the_geom, path(ST_DumpRings($1)) as path) b
          WHERE b.path[1] > 0 /* ie not the outer ring */
            AND ST_Area(b.the_geom) > $2
        ) d
 $$
 LANGUAGE 'sql' IMMUTABLE;
 CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION Filter_Rings(geometry GEOMETRY, param FLOAT)
 RETURNS geometry AS
 $$
 SELECT ST_MakePolygon(c.outer_ring, d.inner_rings) as final_geom
  SELECT * FROM foo WHERE attr > param; -- statt $2 steht hier ein benanntes Fn.-Argument
  ...
 $$
 LANGUAGE 'sql';

Usage example:

 % SELECT ST_AsText( 
   Filter_Rings( 
     ST_PolyFromText(
       'POLYGON((10 10,10 20,20 20,20 10,10 10),(0 0,0 1,1 1,1 0,0 0),(5 5,5 7,7 7,7 5,5 5))'
     ) ,1::float
   )
 );
 % "POLYGON((10 10,10 20,20 20,20 10,10 10),(5 5,5 7,7 7,7 5,5 5))"

Shorter alternative to Filter_Rings:

 CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION Filter_Rings2(geometry,float) RETURNS geometry AS
 $$ SELECT ST_BuildArea(ST_Collect(a.geom)) as final_geom
         FROM ST_DumpRings($1) AS a
           WHERE a.path[1] = 0 OR
                 (a.path[1] > 0 AND ST_Area(a.geom) > $2)
 $$
 LANGUAGE 'sql' IMMUTABLE;

With following restrictions: Possibly slower and squashes 3D geometries to 2D. (Source: http://postgis.refractions.net/pipermail/postgis-users/2009-January/022325.html)

Clean topology

Remarks: Similar to ArcGIS' CLEAN. See also Eliminate sliver polygons.

See:

PostGIS optimieren

Siehe auch:

Version:

  • 1.4 and GEOS 3.1 will bring prepared geometries which will make things faster.

Reorder on disk:

  • import the data (into a temporary table)
  • and then sort the data using some sort of spatial key. A centroid should be OK but consider using a larger bucket such as a gridded area.
 > CREATE TABLE gis_roads 
     AS SELECT * FROM tmp_gis_roads 
     ORDER BY CENTROID(the_geom);

Cluster on disk:

 > CREATE INDEX idx_mytable_the_ON mytable 
     USING GIST(the_geom);
 > CLUSTER mytable 
     USING idx_mytable_the_geom;

Don'ts:

  • Don't use just one big diagonal lines. Break it down because one diagonal line has a huge bounding box (which is what the index works on) while 20 equivalent shorter lines have a much smaller combined box area.
  • Don't use this construction: ST_Intersects(Buffer(GeomA, D), GeomB) Use this one: ST_DWithin(GeomA, GeomB, D)

Weitere Beispiele

Siehe auch:

Fragen und Antworten

Was ist der Unterschied von geometry und geography type?
Geography type besteht aus geografischen Koordinaten (z.B. lat/lon) und wird für grossflächige Daten verwendet, die z.B. "länderübergreifend" sind.
Wie wird ein Geometrie-Attribut erzeugt?
als separates Statement, gleich nach CREATE TABLE... Mit AddGeometryColumn. Ab PostGIS 1.5 ist es endlich möglich, den konkreten Geometrie-Typ direkt im CREATE STATEMENT anzugeben.
Was bedeutet SRID und wie kann man das ändern?
SRID bedeutet Spatial Reference ID und ist ein Fremdschlüssel zum Koordinatenreferenzsystem. SRID information is stored *both* in the geometry_columns table (srid column), and inside each geometry itself. Ist opbligatorischer Parameter u.a. von AddGeometryColumn oder beim Geometrie-Erzeugen. Kann mit UpdateGeometrySRID geändert werden.
Was bedeutet der Error "addgeometrycolumn(...) does not exist"?
Die PostGIS-Funktionen sind nicht geladen. Man installiere die PostGIS-Erweiterung (falls nicht schon geschehen) und erzeuge eine neue PostGIS-Datenbank (siehe "Wie erzeugt man eine neue PostGIS-Datenbank?").
Wie erzeugt man eine neue PostGIS-Datenbank?
1. Falls noch keine 'normale' (=Nicht-GIS-) Datenbank vorhanden ist, "create a new database and choose the template_postgis as your template". 2. Falls eine 'normale' Datenbank mit Tabellen etc. bereits existiert, "spatially enable your database by running the following two SQL files: a) Postgresql\8.2\share\contrib\lwpostgis.sql and b) Postgresql\8.2\share\contrib\spatial_ref_sys.sql. lwpostgis.sql benötigt plpgsql language support installed (Syntax: createlang plpgsql yourexistingdb).
Was ist das für eine Zahl, die ST_distance() zurückgibt?
Siehe PostGIS Wiki.
Was ist der Unterschied zwischen ST_Overlaps, ST_Crosses, ST_Intersects und ST_Contains?
Siehe PostGIS-Doku. zu ST_Overlaps.
Was ist der Unterschied zwischen ST_Extent und ST_Expand?
Siehe [8].
Was für Mass-Einheiten (units of measurement) benützen die PostGIS-Funktionen?
Siehe PostGIS Wiki.
Wie erhält man Distanz-Masse in Meter?
Siehe PostGIS Wiki.
Was sind die Grenzen der 3D-Typen und -Funktionen in PostGIS?
(1) 3D volumetric objects are not supported. (2) 3D non-volume are supported partly -- e.g. a 2D polygon in 3 d space, a line, point in 3d space. (3) Spatial relationships however only consider the spatial component of the x, y plane.
MySQL hat auch eine Spatial Extension und ist erst noch bei Internet-Service-Providern verbreiteter; was ist der Unterschied zu PostGIS?
Drei Gründe: (1) Operationen werden nur mittels Bounding-Box gemacht (hips-between-geometries.html, (2) es gibt keine Unterstützung für Koordinatensysteme, (3) die Spatial Extension ist praktisch eine One-Man-Show.

Snippets

Get area of a polygon which has SRID EPSG:4326 (WGS84/GPS)

All area functions are squared by definition. But a sq degree varies in its area depending on latitude. Transform your data using a SRID referring to an equal-area (or near enough to equal area for your purposes) projection in the query for area:

 -- Get area from a geometry given the geometry is in 4326.
 % SELECT ST_Area2d(ST_transform(geometry, <SRID>));

Extent of Database

If you want to find out the EXTENT parameters of your database, run this command:

 # su postgres
 # psql -d <yourdatabase> -c "SELECT extent(geometry) FROM <yourtable>"

Replace <your...> with the relevant database and table names.

Nearest Neighbors

Find n (e.g. 5) nearest neighbors for given point coordinate (a classic query). From '[postgis-users] Find n Nearest Neighbors for given Point using PostGIS?'.

 CREATE TABLE geoname ( -- (from geonames.org) 
   geoname varchar(255),
   geonameid integer,
   geom geometry
 );
 -- PRIMARY KEY UNIQUE BTREE index for geonameid
 
 UPDATE geoname SET geom = ST_SetSRID(ST_Point(longitude,latitude) 4326);
 ...
 CREATE INDEX geom_index ON geoname USING GIST (geom);) 
 CLUSTER geom_index ON geoname;

Possible solution (inspired by [9]):

 SELECT 
   start.asciiname, 
   ende.asciiname, 
   distance_sphere(start.geom,ende.geom) as distance
 FROM geoname AS start, geoname AS ende 
 WHERE start.geonameid = 2950159 
   AND start.geonameid <> ende.geonameid 
   AND ST_DWithin(start.geom, ende.geom, 30) 
 ORDER BY distance LIMIT 5;

There will be a KNNGIS index probably in PostgreSQL 9.1 which makes such queries even faster. It returns the found tupels in decreasing order until LIMIT without computing and sorting whole set before returning it.

The way currently is to write a stored procedure that expands the search if it fails to get the number of results. So make a set returning function with the body something like this (pseudo code) and you should get good performance:

 radius := 0.01; -- assuming degrees
 loop
  select into cnt count(*) from mytable
   where expand(mypnt, radius) && the_geom limit 5;
  if found and cnt = 5 or radius > maxradius then
    for rr in select * from mytable
                where expand(mypnt, radius) && the_geom limit 5
      loop
        return rr;
      end loop;
    return;
  else
    radius := radius * 2;
  end if;
 end loop;

Find nearest existing point on a linestring given a point (Snapping 1)

A user clicks somewhere on a polyline and we want to get the closest existing point that is part of the representation of the line. You can replace 0.01 with some other tolerance number to compensate for the fact that a person probably won't click right on the line.

Ab PostGIS 1.3.5 (wegen generate_series() )?

 SELECT P.gid, P.geom As pclosest
 FROM (SELECT 
   gid, 
   ST_PointN(the_geom, generate_series(1, ST_NPoints(the_geom))) AS geom
 FROM point_table) AS P
 WHERE ST_Dwithin(P.geom, ST_SetSRID(ST_MakePoint(lon,lat),somesrid), 0.01)

Find nearest interpolated point on a linestring given a point (Snapping 2)

See http://blog.cleverelephant.ca/2008/04/snapping-points-in-postgis.html

Find nearest (whole) linestring given a point (Snapping 3)

Basic principle given mypos => 'SRID=3005;POINT(1011102 450541)'

Solution using distance within max. radius e.g. in meters (ST_DWithin):

 SELECT geom, name, etc FROM mytable
 WHERE ST_DWithin(mypos, geom, 50) -- max. distance 50m
 ORDER BY ST_Distance(mypos, geom)
 LIMIT 1

and/or solution using 50 nearest objects (kNN index). Note that's returng 50 objects even if they are far away.

 WITH tmp AS (
   SELECT geom, name, ST_Distance(geom, mypos) AS distance
   FROM mytable
   ORDER BY geom <#> mypos -- prefering <#> over <-> when lines are involved.
   LIMIT 50
 )
 SELECT * FROM tmp 
 ORDER BY distance 
 LIMIT 1

See also the examples at PostGIS Terminal Examples.


Find and add nearest hydrant to a parcel

Given parcels (or other kind of (point?) feature class) and hydrants (or other kind of (point?) feature class) as input (e.g. imported from external files), find and add closest hydrant to parcel. Output: All parcel attributes incl. geometry, hydrant_id and distance from hydrant to parcel.

This is an example of a lateral join driving a nearest-neighbor distance calculation. Needs PostgreSQL 9.5 / PostGIS 2.x. (Credits: https://twitter.com/pwramsey/status/686980049967443968 )

 SELECT
   -- Take all attributes from parcels incl. pid and geom:
   parcels.*,
   -- Keep the hydrant id around, might be useful later:
   hydrants.id AS hydrant_id,
   -- Calculate distance over the spheroid using geography distance:
   ST_Distance(geography(hydrants.geom), geography(parcels.geom)) AS distance
 FROM 
   -- For this data, removing the duplicate parcel geometries and
   -- null attributed parcels cuts the size by 2/3 so a good
   -- performance improvement to filter records here:
   (SELECT DISTINCT ON (geom) *
    FROM parcels_imported 
    WHERE pid IS NOT NULL) AS parcels 
   -- Cross join takes every combination of join records
   -- without restriction, which is fine since we're limiting
   -- the hydrants side of the join to just one return record
   -- per parcel:
   CROSS JOIN LATERAL
   -- The guts of the query, actually do a KNN query for each
   -- candidate parcel on the other side of the join:
   (SELECT id, geom
    FROM hydrants_imported
    ORDER BY parcels.geom <-> geom -- take here cartesian CRS like webmercator 
    LIMIT 1) AS hydrants;

PostGIS views

Q: I like to polygonize linestrings in a view to see the result in qgis. But qgis need gid. How can I create the gid column after an aggregate function in a view?

A1. In postgresql 8.3 you can force oid creation if WITH OIDS is specified when the table is created:

 CREATE VIEW myview AS SELECT oid AS gid, the_geom FROM mytable;

A2. Create a sequence and use then nextval(sequence_name) to get a primary key.

A3. Grab the key from the underlying geometry table, & use it for a key column in your aggregate view, eg. "create view v1 as select min(key) as key" ...

Standard direction for polylines

Q: Is there a standard direction for polylines?

A: There isn't a standard, but you can force your polygons into an orientation with ST_ForceRHR, which forces a clockwise orientation for exterior rings and anti-clockwise for interior rings.

Portion of river geometry along administrative boundary

Q: I have a rivers linestring table and a political boundaries (counties) table polygon. I am wishing to extract the portion of the river geometry that lies along a county border. Of course, these two layers don't have the same individual point precision, so I suspect some buffering is necessary.

A: See following SQL query:

 intersection(
      buffer(exteriorring(geometryn(n.geom,1)),0.02),
      r.geom
 )

So turn the county polygon into an exterior ring and then buffer it out a bit. Then see what portions of the river intersect that buffered polygon.

Convert multipolygon to polygon

Q: How to convert multipolygon to polygon geometries

A: If multipolygon only have one member, then st_geometryn(geom, 1) will do it. Otherwise, look at function st_dump().

Getting all polygon's coordinates

Q. Given a geometry attribute with polygons, how can one get all the polygon's coordinates (as a tupel set)? E.g. either

 1 POINT(1 2)
 2 POINT(2 2)
 3 POINT(3 2)
 ...

... or even better:

     X    Y
 1  1     2
 2  2     2
 3  3     2
 ...
 

1. Maybe a "SELECT ST_AsText(polygon_column) FROM Table" is enough

Output: POLYGON( (1 1, 2 2, 3 3) )

2.

 SELECT 
   DISTINCT ST_X(ST_POINTN(foo.lines, foo.index)) AS x,
   ST_Y(ST_POINTN(foo.lines, foo.index)) AS y 
 FROM (SELECT thelines.lines, generate_series(1,thelines.n) AS index 
         FROM (SELECT polys.geo AS lines, ST_NUMPOINTS(polys.geo) AS n 
                 FROM (SELECT ST_BOUNDARY((ST_DUMP( the_geom )).geom) AS geo 
                         FROM "YOURTABLE" WHERE YOURQUERY
                     ) AS polys
             ) AS thelines
      ) AS foo;
 SELECT DISTINCT 
 -- foo.index,
 ST_X(ST_POINTN(foo.lines, foo.index)) AS x,
 ST_Y(ST_POINTN(foo.lines, foo.index)) AS y 
 FROM (SELECT thelines.lines, generate_series(1,thelines.n) AS index 
         FROM (SELECT polys.geo AS lines, ST_NUMPOINTS(polys.geo) AS n 
                 FROM (SELECT ST_BOUNDARY((ST_DUMP( the_geom )).geom) AS geo 
                         FROM "gemeinden" WHERE gid=4 
                     ) AS polys
             ) AS thelines
      ) AS foo

Should work for multipolygons and polygons.


3. You can import a plpgsql implementation of this until it's implemented in C (http://trac.osgeo.org/postgis/attachment/ticket/76/my_st_dump_points.2.sql). [[Media:]]

Usage:

 SELECT ST_AsText( (My_ST_DumpPoints( poly )).geom )
 FROM (
   SELECT 'POLYGON((0 0, 1 1, 1 0, 0 0))'::geometry AS poly
 ) AS foo;
 ST_AsText ------------
 POINT(0 0)
 POINT(1 1)
 POINT(1 0)
 POINT(0 0)
 (4 rows)

Split a polygon to N linestrings

Source: http://postgis.refractions.net/pipermail/postgis-users/2010-January/025818.html

 CREATE TEMP TABLE mypolygontable AS
 SELECT
 'MULTIPOLYGON(((0 0, 0 4, 4 4, 4 0, 0 0),
                (1 1, 1 2, 2 2, 2 1, 1 1)),
               ((5 5, 5 6, 6 6, 6 5, 5 5))
              )'::geometry geom;
 -- make line segments from every startpoint and endpoint
 SELECT ST_AsText( ST_MakeLine(sp,ep) )
 FROM
   -- extract the endpoints for every 2-point line segment for each
 (SELECT
    ST_PointN(geom, generate_series(1, ST_NPoints(geom)-1)) as sp,
    ST_PointN(geom, generate_series(2, ST_NPoints(geom)  )) as ep
  FROM
     -- extract the individual linestrings
    (SELECT (ST_Dump(ST_Boundary(geom))).geom
     FROM polygons
     ) AS linestrings
 ) AS segments;
     st_astext
 ---------------------
 LINESTRING(0 0,0 4)
 LINESTRING(0 4,4 4)
 LINESTRING(4 4,4 0)
 LINESTRING(4 0,0 0)
 LINESTRING(1 1,1 2)
 LINESTRING(1 2,2 2)
 LINESTRING(2 2,2 1)
 LINESTRING(2 1,1 1)
 LINESTRING(5 5,5 6)
 LINESTRING(5 6,6 6)
 LINESTRING(6 6,6 5)
 LINESTRING(6 5,5 5)
(12 rows)


More general solution:

Aggregate linestrings

Q. Trying to aggregate linestrings together based on their attributes and the fact that they are touching each other.

A. There is a ST_Linemerge function that takes a collection of linestrings as an argument and merges them together into a multilinestring.

With a table "thetable" having an "attrib" field and a "geom" field, one could write the query like this :

 SELECT attrib, (st_dump(merged_geom)).geom
 FROM (
   SELECT attrib, ST_Linemerge(ST_Collect(geom)) AS merged_geom
   FROM thetable
   GROUP BY attrib
 ) AS subq;

Polygons that don't overlap

Q. I have a table with a MULTIPOLYGON field. Some of these records have self intersections and other problems that make ST_IsValid return false. The polygons overlap a lot and I wanted to generate another table that will be the union of all polygons. The table looks like: id, the_geom. What would be the best way to union all of the geometries into a new table where there is only POLYGONS that do not overlap?

A. See SQL:

 SELECT id, ST_Union(ST_Accum(CASE WHEN ST_IsValid(a.the_geom) = 't' THEN a.the_geom ELSE st_buffer(a.the_geom,0) end) AS the_geom
 FROM (SELECT id, the_geom
   FROM mytable
   WHERE the_geom IS NOT NULL
     AND geometrytype(the_geom) != 'GEOMETRYCOLLECTION'
   UNION ALL
      SELECT gid, (ST_Dump(the_geom)).geom AS the_geom
        FROM mytable
        WHERE the_geom IS NOT NULL
          AND geometrytype(the_geom) = 'GEOMETRYCOLLECTION'
      ) AS a;

The split based on GEOMETRYCOLLECTION is that when I first tested the STR indexed ST_Union I found that performance was affected if the union set includes an mpoly.

Transform coordinates into other reference systems

The following statement "abuses" PostGIS to simply transforms the given point coordinates into other reference systems and prints the result to the console. This is useful for example to double-check self coded transformation algorithms.

 SELECT
   ST_AsText(ST_Transform( ST_SetSRID(ST_MakePoint(8.8211, 47.2221), 4326), 4326)) "EPSG:4326",
   ST_AsText(ST_Transform( ST_SetSRID(ST_MakePoint(8.8211, 47.2221), 4326), 3857)) "EPSG:3857 spherical mercator",
   ST_AsText(ST_Transform( ST_SetSRID(ST_MakePoint(8.8211, 47.2221), 4326), 21781)) "EPSG:21781 CH1903/LV03"

Turn a latitude and longitude column into a geometry column

Often data is delivered where geometry is stored in separat columns, like in CSV format.

  • First, make sure the latitude_column and longitude_column are of type NUMBER.
  • Then, make sure there is a column called the_geom which is of type POINT (and in the target CRS, typically 4326)

Then call this SQL command which takes the latitude/longitude columns and creates a proper point geometry for each row in the database:

 UPDATE table_name 
 SET the_geom = ST_SetSRID(ST_MakePoint(longitude_column, latitude_column),4326)

Join Lines

Line Join functionality. Takes connected separate lines which do no intersect and merges them into longer lines (Similar to FME LineJoiner, http://docs.safe.com/fme/2010/html/FME_Transformers/content/transformers/linejoiner.htm):

 SELECT (ST_Dump(ST_Linemerge(ST_Collect(geometry)))).geom from line;

Needs PostGIS >= 2.0. There's also the command "ST_CollectionHomogenize(<<geometry collection>>)" (needs PostGIS 2.x and GEOS >= 2.1.0).

Orientation of a Polygon

Orientation of a Polygon

The main orientation of a polygon can be determined by the maximum distance of nodes of a polygon. To calculate this one can use ST_LongestLine() with the same geometry twice as input:

 SELECT ST_AsText( ST_Transform(ST_LongestLine(geom,geom),3857) ) as longestline
 FROM ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON ((8.816893100738525 47.22353933792977, 8.817365169525146 47.223779787911226, 
 8.818191289901733 47.22307300758443, 8.818459510803223 47.223269741199125, 8.81878137588501 47.22301471600286, 
 8.817751407623291 47.222584813609146, 8.81751537322998 47.222796122001014, 8.817965984344482 47.22298557018802, 
 8.816893100738525 47.22353933792977))',4326) as geom;
 -- Output: LINESTRING(981492.050352938 5978638.01719605,981702.252180723 5978552.02553924)

Clip all features from within a BBOX

Clip all features from within a BBOX (= Campus HSR Rapperswil; runs also in PostGIS Terminal):

 with bbox as (
   select ST_Transform(ST_MakeEnvelope(8.813095,47.222229,8.819543,47.224415, 4326), 900913) AS way
 ),
 polygons as (
   select ST_AsText(ST_Intersection(my.way,bbox.way)) as geom, osm_id, name, amenity
   from osm_polygon my, bbox 
   where ST_Intersects(my.way,bbox.way)
 ),
 linestrings as (
   select ST_AsText(ST_Intersection(my.way,bbox.way)) as geom, osm_id, name, amenity
   from osm_line my, bbox 
   where ST_Intersects(my.way,bbox.way)
 ),
 points as (
   select ST_AsText(my.way) as geom, osm_id, name,amenity
   from osm_point my, bbox 
   where ST_Intersects(my.way,bbox.way)
 )
 select * from polygons
 union
 select * from linestrings
 union
 select * from points